The Hawkins class was a category of 5 heavy cruisers of the Royal Navy designed in 1915 and constructed throughout the first World War. All ships had been named after Elizabethan sea captains. The three ships remaining as cruisers in 1939 served in the Second World Conflict, with Effingham being an early war loss by wreck; Raleigh had been lost in the same shipwreck on uncharted rocks in 1922 (and Vindictive was practically misplaced to grounding in 1919). Vindictive, though not a cruiser, additionally served throughout the Battle. This class formed the basis for the definition of the maximum cruiser type underneath the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922.
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Although the Hawkins class have been the first heavy cruisers constructed for the Royal Navy, they were designed as improved variations of the Birmingham sub-class of the Town-class mild cruisers, thus they were initially identified because the “Improved Birmingham” kind. Their lineage descended through an intermediate sketch design of 1912 known as the “Atlantic Cruiser”, armed with a mix of 7.5 and 6-inch (190 and 152 mm) guns, designed to counter reported giant German cruisers armed with 7-inch (170 mm) guns.
In 1915, a new design of cruiser was prepared for trade safety on distant waters, for which a heavy armament, lengthy range and excessive velocity was required; which means a large ship. Earlier massive cruisers had been of the armoured cruiser or protected cruiser type. These ships had been made out of date by the adoption of oil-firing and the steam turbine engine and had been superseded by the battlecruiser and the light cruiser. The Hawkins design was mainly a mild cruiser enlarged sufficiently to extend their range and armament as required. A blended armament of 9.2 and 6-inch guns was rejected after wartime expertise illustrated the issue of controlling a mixed battery as shell splashes could not be differentiated. Thus, a uniform battery of 7.5-inch calibre was adopted, controlled by the innovation of director firing.
The development of director firing made the planned armament out of date, as director management relies on “straddles” by which some shells in a given salvo are seen to fall in need of the goal and some long. So long as straddles are maintained, some share of the photographs might be hits. With a principal battery consisting of solely two guns, a straddle of 1 shell falling quick and one long mathematically eliminates the possibility of a hit, whereas a uniform six-gun broadside permits the potential of up to four hits out of a straddle.
The boilers had been initially a mixture of coal and oil firing to ensure a provide of gas on distant stations; coal being extra accessible and the ships could cruise on coal firing alone. The installed power was 60,000 shp (45,000 kW) for 30 knots (56 km/h). However, only Hawkins and Vindictive had been accomplished as such. The opposite ships weren’t constructed with as much haste and were accomplished post-conflict with oil-firing solely, growing power to 70,000 shp (52,000 kW) for 31 knots (57 km/h).
These ships did not swimsuit the Royal Navy’s post-World Warfare I needs well, as Britain wanted numbers of cruisers, slightly than individually powerful ships. As breaking them up on the slips would have been an unwarranted waste of money, they have been accomplished anyway. At slightly below 10,000 tons and armed with 7.5-inch guns, they grew to become the prototype of the heavy cruiser designs primarily based on limitations set by the Washington Naval Treaty in 1922.
The fifth and final ship of the class – laid down as Cavendish – was altered to an aircraft service whereas constructing, renamed Vindictive to perpetuate the title of the cruiser sunk on the Second Ostend Raid and her development was rushed to deliver her into service earlier than her cruiser sisters. She had a 100-foot (30 m) flying-off platform forwards and a 215-foot (sixty six m) touchdown deck aft and a hangar for as much as eight aircraft. She was armed with four 7.5 inch and 6 12-pounder guns. In 1923 she reverted to a cruiser, but retained the hangar forwards and did not carry a ‘B’ gun; a crane and catapult being carried as an alternative for seaplanes. After 1935 she did not serve in a cruiser function.
No ships have been accomplished with the original design secondary armament. Hawkins carried solely the 12-pounder anti-aircraft (A/A) guns, her sisters having two (Raleigh) or three (Frobisher, Effingham) QF 4-inch Mark V guns on mountings HA Mark III. In 1929, Hawkins had her 12-pounder guns replaced by an equal number of the same mannequin of 4-inch (102 mm) guns as her sisters. Frobisher was partially disarmed as a coaching ship in 1932, but reverted to a cruiser in 1937 when Vindictive was specially demilitarised for this function.
The ships have been scheduled for disposal in 1936, but rising worldwide tensions caused their retention. In 1937, Effingham was rebuilt as a light cruiser with nine BL 6-inch Mark XII guns on single mountings CP Mark XIV. These have been shipped superfiring forwards in ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ positions, on both wing, triple aft in ‘W’, ‘X’ and ‘Y’ positions with the ninth gun being on the quarterdeck in place ‘Z’. The after boiler rooms had been eliminated and the remaining uptakes trunked into a single massive funnel. Secondary armament was eight QF 4-inch Mark XVI on twin mountings HA/LA Mark XIX, eight QF 2-pounder Mark VIII guns on two quadruple mountings Mark VII and twelve 0.5 inch Vickers machine guns on three quadruple mountings Mark I. The submerged torpedo tubes were removed. She had a new bridge and spotting prime and carried a crane amidships; the catapult and aircraft had been by no means fitted.
It had been planned to rebuild Hawkins and Frobisher on similar traces, however different priorities prevented this. They have been re-armed for war with all their 7.5-inch (191 mm) guns, besides in Frobisher which had the wing guns eliminated so that the 4-inch (102 mm) gun deck could possibly be extended out to the ship’s sides. In 1940, they obtained two (Hawkins) or 4 (Frobisher) quadruple 2 pounder “multiple pom-pom” mountings and seven (Frobisher) or eight (Hawkins) 20 mm Oerlikon guns on single mountings P Mark III. They acquired an outfit of centimetric Radar Sort 273 target indication on the bridge, Type 286 air warning on the mastheads, Type 275 on the HACS 4-inch (102 mm) gun director for ranging and bearing and, in Frobisher solely, a pair of Kind 282 units on the pom-pom administrators on the bridge. Further wartime additions increased the number of 20 mm guns.
Raleigh had the shortest career of any ship of the class, spending just one yr in fee before being wrecked and subsequently broken up.
Effingham was an early war loss, in the course of the Norwegian marketing campaign; grounding on an uncharted shoal, she needed to be destroyed by pleasant forces.
Hawkins served in World Warfare II as a convoy escort in the Indian Ocean, and offered gunfire support through the Normandy landings.
Frobisher served in World Warfare II as a convoy escort and a depot ship for the Normandy landings. It was relegated to coaching roles by 1945, with a corresponding reduction in armament.
Vindictive served in two World Wars, in a wide number of roles, lastly being scrapped in 1946.
Listing of ships of the Second World War
Listing of ship courses of the Second World Struggle
^ a b c d e f Whitley 1995 p.77
Brown, D. K. The Grand Fleet, Warship Design and Growth 1906-1922. Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-86176-099-X..mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output qquotes:”\”””\”””‘””‘”.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free abackground:url(“//add.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-inexperienced.svg/9px-Lock-inexperienced.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-place:right .1em middle.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration abackground:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-grey-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-place:right .1em middle.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-crimson-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-crimson-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-place:right .1em heart.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcoloration:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-backside:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errorshow:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-seen-errorfont-dimension:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-dimension:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-proper,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-properpadding-proper:0.2em
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